ar - create, modify, and extract from archives.

          ar [-]{dmpqrtx}[abcilosuvV] [membername] archive files...

          The GNU ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from  ar-
          chives.  An archive is a single file holding a collection of
          other files in a structure that makes  it  possible  to  re-
          trieve  the original individual files (called members of the

          The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp,
          owner,  and  group  are preserved in the archive, and may be
          reconstituted on extraction.

          GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have names of any
          length;  however,  depending on how ar is configured on your
          system, a limit on member-name length may  be  imposed  (for
          compatibility  with  archive  formats  maintained with other
          tools).  If it exists, the  limit  is  often  15  characters
          (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters (typ-
          ical of formats related to coff).

          ar is considered a binary utility because archives  of  this
          sort are most often used as libraries holding commonly need-
          ed subroutines.

          ar will create an index to the symbols defined  in  relocat-
          able  object  modules  in  the  archive when you specify the
          modifier `s'.  Once created, this index is  updated  in  the
          archive whenever ar makes a change to its contents (save for
          the `q' update operation).  An archive with  such  an  index
          speeds up linking to the library, and allows routines in the
          library to call each other without regard to their placement
          in the archive.

          You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index
          table.   If  an  archive lacks the table, another form of ar
          called ranlib can be used to add just the table.

          ar insists  on  at  least  two  arguments  to  execute:  one
          keyletter  specifying  the operation (optionally accompanied
          by other keyletters specifying modifiers), and  the  archive
          name to act on.

          Most operations can also  accept  further  files  arguments,
          specifying particular files to operate on.

          GNU ar allows you to mix the operation code p  and  modifier
          flags  mod in any order, within the first command-line argu-

          If you wish, you may begin the first  command-line  argument
          with a dash.

          The p keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it  may
          be  any  of  the following, but you must specify only one of

          d    Delete modules from the archive.  Specify the names  of
               modules  to  be  deleted  as  files; the archive is un-
               touched if you specify no files to delete.

               If you specify the `v'  modifier,  ar  will  list  each
               module as it is deleted.

          m    Use this operation to move members in an archive.

               The ordering of  members  in  an  archive  can  make  a
               difference  in  how  programs  are linked using the li-
               brary, if a symbol is defined in more than one member.

               If no modifiers are used with m, any members  you  name
               in  the files arguments are moved to the end of the ar-
               chive; you can use the `a', `b', or  `i'  modifiers  to
               move them to a specified place instead.

          p    Print the specified members  of  the  archive,  to  the
               standard  output  file.   If the `v' modifier is speci-
               fied, show the member name before copying its  contents
               to standard output.

               If you specify no files, all the files in  the  archive
               are printed.

          q    Quick append; add files to the end of archive,  without
               checking for replacement.

               The modifiers `a', `b', and  `i'  do  not  affect  this
               operation;  new members are always placed at the end of
               the archive.

               The modifier `v' makes ar list each file as it  is  ap-

               Since  the  point  of  this  operation  is  speed,  the
               archive's symbol table index is not updated, even if it
               already existed; you can use `ar s' or ranlib explicit-
               ly to update the symbol table index.

          r    Insert files  into  archive  (with  replacement).  This
               operation  differs  from `q' in that any previously ex-
               isting members are deleted if their names  match  those
               being added.

               If one of the files named in files  doesn't  exist,  ar
               displays  an  error message, and leaves undisturbed any
               existing members of the archive matching that name.

               By default, new members are added at  the  end  of  the
               file; but you may use one of the modifiers `a', `b', or
               `i' to request  placement  relative  to  some  existing

               The modifier `v' used with  this  operation  elicits  a
               line  of  output for each file inserted, along with one
               of the letters `a' or `r' to indicate whether the  file
               was appended (no old member deleted) or replaced.

          t    Display a table listing the  contents  of  archive,  or
               those  of the files listed in files that are present in
               the archive.  Normally only the member name  is  shown;
               if you also want to see the modes (permissions), times-
               tamp, owner, group, and size, you can request  that  by
               also specifying the `v' modifier.

               If you do not specify any files, all files in  the  ar-
               chive are listed.

               If there is more than one file with the same name (say,
               `fie')  in  an archive (say `b.a'), `ar t b.a fie' will
               list only the first instance; to see them all, you must
               ask for a complete listing-in our example, `ar t b.a'.

          x    Extract members (named files) from  the  archive.   You
               can  use  the  `v' modifier with this operation, to re-
               quest that ar list each name as it extracts it.

               If you do not specify any files, all files in  the  ar-
               chive are extracted.

          A number of modifiers (mod) may  immediately  follow  the  p
          keyletter, to specify variations on an operation's behavior:
          a    Add new files after an existing member of the  archive.
               If  you use the modifier a, the name of an existing ar-
               chive member must be present as  the  membername  argu-
               ment, before the archive specification.

          b    Add new files before an existing member of the archive.
               If  you use the modifier b, the name of an existing ar-
               chive member must be present as  the  membername  argu-
               ment, before the archive specification.  (same as `i').

          c    Create the archive.  The specified  archive  is  always
               created if it didn't exist, when you request an update.
               But a warning is issued unless you specify  in  advance
               that you expect to create it, by using this modifier.

          i    Insert new files before an existing member of  the  ar-
               chive.   If  you use the modifier i, the name of an ex-
               isting archive member must be present as the membername
               argument,  before  the archive specification.  (same as

          l    This modifier is accepted but not used.

          o    Preserve the original dates of members when  extracting
               them.   If  you do not specify this modifier, files ex-
               tracted from the archive will be stamped with the  time
               of extraction.

          s    Write an object-file index into the archive, or  update
               an existing one, even if no other change is made to the
               archive.  You may use this modifier  flag  either  with
               any  operation, or alone.  Running `ar s' on an archive
               is equivalent to running `ranlib' on it.

          u    Normally, ar r... inserts all files listed into the ar-
               chive.   If  you would like to insert only those of the
               files you list that are newer than existing members  of
               the same names, use this modifier.  The `u' modifier is
               allowed only for the operation `r' (replace).  In  par-
               ticular,  the  combination  `qu'  is not allowed, since
               checking the timestamps would lose any speed  advantage
               from the operation `q'.

          v    This modifier requests the verbose version of an opera-
                Many operations display additional  information,  such
               as  filenames  processed,  when the modifier `v' is ap-

          V    This modifier shows the version number of ar.

          `binutils' entry in info; The GNU Binary  Utilities,  Roland
          H. Pesch (October 1991).  nm(1), ranlib(1).

          Copyright (c) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

          Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies
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